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Zawad, M. F. S., Rahman, M. A., & Priyom, S. N. (2021). Bio-Engineered Concrete: A Critical Review on The Next Generation of Durable Concrete. Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum (JCEF). Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 335-358.


Concrete is a prerequisite material for infrastructural development, which is required to be sufficiently strong and durable. It consists of fine, coarse, and aggregate particles bonded with a fluid cement that hardens over time. However, micro cracks development in concrete is a significant threat to its durability. To overcome this issue, several treatments and maintenance methods are adopted after construction, to ensure the durability of the structure. These include the use of bio-engineered concrete, which involved the biochemical reaction of non-reacted limestone and a calcium-based nutrient with the help of bacteria. These bio-cultures (bacteria) act as spores, which have the ability to survive up to 200 years, as they are also found to start the mineralization process and the filling of cracks or pores when in contact with moisture. Previous research proved that bio-engineered concrete is a self-healing technology, which developed the mechanical strength properties of the composite materials. The mechanism and healing process of the concrete is also natural and eco-friendly. Therefore, this study aims to critically analyze bio-engineered concrete and its future potentials in the Structural Engineering field, through the use of literature review. The data analysis was conducted in order to provide gradual and informative ideas on the historical background, present situation, and main mechanism process of the materials. According to the literature review, bio-engineered concrete has a promising outcome in the case of strength increment and crack healing. However, the only disadvantage was its less application in the practical fields. The results concluded that bio-engineered concrete is a new method for ensuring sustainable infrastructural development. And also, it indicated that more practical outcome-based analysis with extensive application in various aspects should be conducted, in order to assess the overall durability.

Authors: Zawad, M. F. S., Rahman, M. A., Priyom, S. N.

Link(s) for the Paper: Journal Website | ResearchGate